When Was Blackjack Invented
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When Was Blackjack Invented The Origins of the Game in the 18th Century VideoHow to Play Blackjack
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It was he, who in created the counting method that enabled him to quit his job of Nuclear Physicist at the Random Corporation and become a professional player.
Marcum's counting method is considered to be the first fully-fledged points-counting system. In Harold Smith Sr. Which advised players to bet more when there were lots of Aces left in the deck.
Harold Smith Sr. The book tells the story of a famous card-counter, Joe Bernstein, who was a frequent visitor to Nevada casinos in the 60's.
The first accurate book published about card counting strategies was one called "Playing Blackjack to Win", There are 16 strategy tips on card counting in the book.
But there were no blackjack tips that would tell how and when to vary the players bets. This book was only published in a limited quantity in although it has been reprinted as new editions now feature the latest info on the game and winning methods.
Card counting techniques can identify such situations. Note: where changes in the house edge due to changes in the rules are stated in percentage terms, the difference is usually stated here in percentage points , not percentage.
The rules of casino blackjack are generally determined by law or regulation, which establishes certain rule variations allowed at the discretion of the casino.
The rule variations of any particular game are generally posted on or near the table. You can ask the dealer if the variations are not clearly posted.
Over variations of blackjack have been documented. As with all casino games, blackjack incorporates a "house edge", a statistical advantage for the casino that is built into the game.
This house edge is primarily due to the fact that the player will lose when both the player and dealer bust. This is not true in games where blackjack pays as that rule increases the house edge by about 1.
The expected loss rate of players who deviate from basic strategy through poor play will be greater, often much greater. Surrender, for those games that allow it, is usually not permitted against a dealer blackjack; if the dealer's first card is an ace or ten, the hole card is checked to make sure there is no blackjack before surrender is offered.
This rule protocol is consequently known as "late" surrender. The alternative, "early" surrender, gives player the option to surrender before the dealer checks for blackjack, or in a no-hole-card game.
Early surrender is much more favorable to the player than late surrender. For late surrender, however, while it is tempting to opt for surrender on any hand which will probably lose, the correct strategy is to only surrender on the very worst hands, because having even a one in four chance of winning the full bet is better than losing half the bet and pushing the other half, as entailed by surrendering.
In most non-U. With no hole card, it is almost never correct basic strategy to double or split against a dealer ten or ace, since a dealer blackjack will result in the loss of the split and double bets; the only exception is with a pair of aces against a dealer 10, where it is still correct to split.
In all other cases, a stand, hit or surrender is called for. For instance, holding 11 against a dealer 10, the correct strategy is to double in a hole card game where the player knows the dealer's second card is not an ace , but to hit in a no hole card game.
The no hole card rule adds approximately 0. The "original bets only" rule variation appearing in certain no hole card games states that if the player's hand loses to a dealer blackjack, only the mandatory initial bet "original" is forfeited, and all optional bets, meaning doubles and splits, are pushed.
Each blackjack game has a basic strategy , which prescribes the optimal method of playing any hand against any dealer up-card so that the long-term house advantage the expected loss of the player is minimized.
An example of a basic strategy is shown in the table below, which applies to a game with the following specifications: . The bulk of basic strategy is common to all blackjack games, with most rule variations calling for changes in only a few situations.
For example, to use the table above on a game with the stand on soft 17 rule which favors the player, and is typically found only at higher-limit tables today only 6 cells would need to be changed: hit on 11 vs.
A, hit on 15 vs. A, stand on 17 vs. A, stand on A,7 vs. Regardless of the specific rule variations, taking insurance or "even money" is never the correct play under basic strategy.
Estimates of the house edge for blackjack games quoted by casinos and gaming regulators are generally based on the assumption that the players follow basic strategy and do not systematically change their bet size.
Most blackjack games have a house edge of between 0. Casino promotions such as complimentary match play vouchers or blackjack payouts allow the player to acquire an advantage without deviating from basic strategy.
Basic strategy is based upon a player's point total and the dealer's visible card. Players may be able to improve on this decision by considering the precise composition of their hand, not just the point total.
For example, players should ordinarily stand when holding 12 against a dealer 4. However, in a single deck game, players should hit if their 12 consists of a 10 and a 2.
The presence of a 10 in the player's hand has two consequences: . However, even when basic and composition-dependent strategy lead to different actions, the difference in expected reward is small, and it becomes even smaller with more decks.
Using a composition-dependent strategy rather than basic strategy in a single deck game reduces the house edge by 4 in 10,, which falls to 3 in , for a six-deck game.
Blackjack has been a high-profile target for advantage players since the s. Advantage play is the attempt to win more using skills such as memory, computation, and observation.
These techniques, while generally legal, can be powerful enough to give the player a long-term edge in the game, making them an undesirable customer for the casino and potentially leading to ejection or blacklisting if they are detected.
The main techniques of advantage play in blackjack are as follows:. During the course of a blackjack shoe, the dealer exposes the dealt cards.
Careful accounting of the exposed cards allows a player to make inferences about the cards which remain to be dealt. These inferences can be used in the following ways:.
A card counting system assigns a point score to each rank of card e. When a card is exposed, a counter adds the score of that card to a running total, the 'count'.
A card counter uses this count to make betting and playing decisions according to a table which they have learned.
The count starts at 0 for a freshly shuffled deck for "balanced" counting systems. Unbalanced counts are often started at a value which depends on the number of decks used in the game.
Blackjack's house edge is usually between 0. Card counting is most rewarding near the end of a complete shoe when as few as possible cards remain.
Single-deck games are therefore particularly advantageous to the card counting player. As a result, casinos are more likely to insist that players do not reveal their cards to one another in single-deck games.
In games with more decks of cards, casinos limit penetration by ending the shoe and reshuffling when one or more decks remain undealt.
Casinos also sometimes use a shuffling machine to reintroduce the exhausted cards every time a deck has been played.
Card counting is legal and is not considered cheating as long as the counter is not using an external device,  : 6—7 but if a casino realizes players are counting, the casino might inform them that they are no longer welcome to play blackjack.
Sometimes a casino might ban a card counter from the property. The use of external devices to help counting cards is illegal in all US states that license blackjack card games.
Techniques other than card counting can swing the advantage of casino blackjack toward the player. All such techniques are based on the value of the cards to the player and the casino as originally conceived by Edward O.
Shuffle tracking requires excellent eyesight and powers of visual estimation but is more difficult to detect since the player's actions are largely unrelated to the composition of the cards in the shoe.
Arnold Snyder's articles in Blackjack Forum magazine brought shuffle tracking to the general public. His book, The Shuffle Tracker's Cookbook, mathematically analyzed the player edge available from shuffle tracking based on the actual size of the tracked slug.
But it didn't stay down for long. In the 's, restrictions eased up and legalized betting on horse racing became popular. In , Nevada legalized gambling again, and casinos literally sprouted from the sands of the desert.
Atlantic City followed suit in and since then, other states have legalized various forms of gambling. Gamblers were hungry for a variety of games and where the early casinos offered just a few choices, the new and improved versions started adding variety to the games.
Down in Texas they'd been playing a poker game called Hold Em and as the Texans traveled thru Nevada, they urged the casinos to add this poker variant.
They didn't just want to play poker, they wanted to play Texas Hold Em as the variant came to be known.
Variants of blackjack and poker started popping up all thru the casinos , sometimes from foreign travelers bringing an overseas version and sometimes by the casinos themselves attempting to tip the odds.
Either way it was a hit and places like Las Vegas became all the rage, growing faster than anyone could have imagined.
Variations of the games were sometimes used as a draw for a particular casino, being the only casino to offer that variant.
Not to be outdone, other casinos would offer their own variations and before long there were dozens of different poker games and blackjack games.
The actual year that blackjack was invented has long eluded historians and card game fanatics, with multiple origins and periods being attributed to its creation.
Speculation about the history of blackjack dates all the way back to the Roman Empire, where some historians believe that the Romans played a very early variation of blackjack prior to the creation of playing cards using blocks of woods marked with different numerical values.
Renowned Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes wrote a book of short stories called Ronconete y Cortadillo which was set in the town of Seville in and told the tale of gambling cheats scheming to win a game called Veintiuna the Spanish word for In French casinos during this time there was a game known as Vingt-et-Un which translates in English to twenty one that was a kind of hybrid of two games that were popular at that time: Chemin de Fer and French Ferme.